Chemotherapy is one of the methods of non-surgical treatment of oncological diseases. Its essence lies in the use of drugs that have a toxic effect on rapidly dividing cancer cells. Negative effects on healthy cells of the body should be absent or minimal. This procedure is used to cure a significant number of malignant tumors as the main treatment. However, a large number of cancer patients receive chemotherapy in combination with surgical or radiotherapy methods. The peculiarity of such treatment is its duration and frequency. Some courses of the procedure are carried out for several years, sometimes throughout the life of the patient.
For treatment of the majority of oncological diseases,
two types of chemotherapy are used: mono-chemotherapy (single drug treatment) and polychemo therapy (treatment with several drugs concurrently or sequentially). In modern oncology, in order to achieve the maximum effect of chemotherapeutic treatment, complex combinations of several chemotherapies are increasingly being used.
Chemotherapy drugs have a destructive effect on cancer cells by intervening at certain stages in the process of their development or on the peculiarities of their structure. Particularly sensitive to the effects of chemotherapy drugs are cells that quickly divide and live a short time, so these drugs have a side effect on healthy cells of the body (cells of blood and bone marrow, hair roots, gastrointestinal tract).The chemotherapeutic treatment scheme depends on the oncological diagnosis, the stage of the disease. It is strictly regulated by international methods and rules.