Obesity is a serious health problem experienced by people who cannot lose weight and do not lose weight even though they are dieting or playing sports. In the treatment of obesity, it is primarily aimed that the patient does not gain more weight and loses their existing weight.
Obesity problem that negatively affects a person’s total health status; in cases where the patient’s BMI (body mass index) is above 35, an obesity surgery treatment method may be preferred. Weight Loss Surgery is a term that includes a group of surgical methods applied on the digestive system to solve the problem of excess weight that cannot be solved by methods such as diet and exercise.
There is no best obesity surgery, the ideal one is the one that is specially selected for the patient. Obesity surgery or bariatric surgery is a term that briefly includes a group of surgical methods applied on the digestive system to solve the problem of excess weight that cannot be solved by methods such as diet and exercise with a weight that will create health problems.
Although the methods of Weight Loss Surgery include many different operations, basically the mechanisms of their action can be studied in two groups. These are the restrictive effect on the amount of food that can be taken and the malabsorbtive effect that reduces the absorption of food.
What is Weight Loss Surgery?
Weight Loss Surgery is the process of losing weight by performing a surgical procedure on people with obesity problems. It is applied in case of the following conditions in people who have not managed to lose weight with treatment and diet programs.
Weight Loss Surgery started in the 1950s, with the advancement of technology, the preference for surgical methods has increased for reasons such as the development of various techniques, the reduction of surgery time and recovery time, and the reduction of risks that may occur after surgery. It is very important to be protected before obesity occurs.
Prevention of obesity should be started in childhood. Obesity, which occurs in children and adolescence, is preparing the infrastructure for gaining weight in the future. Therefore, he should have knowledge about the social environment, balanced nutrition and physical activity.
The treatment process for obesity is a period that requires a long-term and continuity, during which a person must show determination and give himself in his entirety. Currently, obesity surgeries can be successfully performed in many centers. The medical world has not yet reached a consensus on which is the best choice of surgery for the surgical treatment of obesity.
In this context, each patient should be evaluated individually, and how the patient’s excess weight , obesity-induced health problems secondary status , eating habits, diet and exercise affects a lot of factors like how will heed the recommendations in choosing surgery.
How is Weight Loss Surgery done?
Weight Loss Surgery is performed by an experienced surgical team using a laparoscopic method with general anesthesia. After the operation is over, the patient’s condition and the recommendation of the anesthesiologist can sometimes be taken to the intensive care unit overnight for observation purposes.
Patients who are excluded from this condition are sent to their rooms exactly when they wake up from anesthesia. In order to get rid of the discomfort of obesity after a successful operation, to get a healthy and high-quality life, patients should be careful. After carrying out the necessary checks in the hospital and then discharging the patient, the treatment process continues.
The diet program that the dietician and the surgeon who performs the operation deem appropriate should be carefully followed by the patient. The patient should not exercise during the processes specified by the doctor and disrupt their regular control. Nutrition after bariatric surgery is an issue that needs to be considered.
General weight loss lasts up to 1 year. We need to establish a new eating habit and lifestyle after surgery. We should not continue our old habits. We should eat more protein-weighted food. In addition to regular and healthy eating, we should not forget about exercises for permanent weight loss. Do not disconnect from your dietitian and doctor.
Weight Loss Surgery Techniques
Currently, there are three techniques of Weight Loss Surgery. The most common of these is gastric sleeve surgery. In the second place is the normal bypass (Roux-en-Y), and in the third place is the mini-bypass surgery. In fact, the tube can be divided into two as stomach surgery and bypass surgery.
Tube stomach surgery is performed only on the stomach, while bypass surgeries are performed on the stomach and small intestine. Gastric sleeve surgery is an operation that allows you to restrict the foods we eat. It is performed by reducing the stomach. In bypass surgery, in addition to reducing the stomach, the route of food is shortened by bypassing it.
Thus, less absorption of food is ensured. The mini bypass bypasses a bowel length of 2 meters. On a regular bypass, a 1-1.5-meter path is disabled. A mini-bypass is perceived as an easier operation due to its name than a normal bypass, but it is a heavier operation because it disables more pathways than a normal bypass.
If we sort the surgeries according to their severity, the gastric sleeve is the lightest. Then comes the usual bypass. The most painful and therefore effective of them is the mini-bypass.
As the effectiveness of these surgeries increases, side effects may also increase. For this reason, the mildest in terms of side effects is gastric sleeve surgery. Then comes the usual bypass. The most serious is the mini-bypass.
Weight Loss Surgery Risks
There are 3 main Weight Loss Surgery Risks. These are Leaks, emboli and bleeding. These risks are around 1% and % in surgeries performed by experienced surgeons. It is important that such problems are noticed as early as possible and the necessary intervention is performed. Timely treatment usually eliminates the problem.
Studies conducted all over the world show that the weight lost in 1.5 years after surgery is maintained for many years. But after 7-8 years, some weight can be gained, but in no case can the weight before the operation be reached. For example, if someone who has undergone surgery with 130 kg has dropped to 60 kg after surgery, they may increase to 70-75 kg after 10 years.
In order not to gain weight again, it is necessary to keep in touch with your doctor and dietitian, although not often. After all, the organism is an active structure, it has the ability to adapt to new situations. During this period, it is useful to maintain every nutritional discipline. Not every method of treatment is suitable for everyone when they get older.
According to the person, the physician and the patient should decide on the appropriate treatment method together. It is important that the patient participates in the decision-making process. Because the patient is the one who will apply what the doctor says as a result.
Weight Loss Surgery Recovery Time
On the first day after Weight Loss Surgery, according to the patient’s condition, liquid nutrition is switched to under the supervision of a dietitian and physician. Operations are performed using a closed method, that is, laparoscopically. It is performed by entering the abdomen with the help of a telescope through 5- 6 tiny incisions in the patient.
Patients begin to be carried out on the fourth day after surgery. Depending on the type of surgery chosen, patients are discharged within 3- 5 days. After discharge, it is recommended to drink at least 1- 1.5 liters (8 glasses) of water every day, and for the first 2 weeks it is recommended to eat juicy food as determined by the dietitian.
It is recommended to take protein supplements every day. After 2 weeks have passed, it is gradually switched to soft food and the importance of taking the morsels in small sizes and swallowing them after chewing them thoroughly is explained. For a month, heavy physical exercises and heavy lifting of loads should be avoided.
For employees, they can return to their jobs after 10-15 days, provided that they do not do heavy work at work. It is important that women who want to have children after surgery are protected for a year and become pregnant after undergoing a dietician’s check-up.
The decreased stomach volume and stomach digestion capacity after surgery require that the patient be followed up with a special nutrition program. During the first 2 weeks after surgery, a diet should be maintained with liquid drinks with a certain calorie content per milliliter, and in the following weeks, a diet with liquid-liquid solid foods that will not create a protein deficit should be maintained.
A person’s daily calorie and nutrient needs should be calculated by a dietitian specializing in bariatric surgery and a nutrition program should be created so that it does not disrupt their overall health and does not cause any diseases related to nutrient deficiency.